How To Add a Swap on FreeBSD Unix Systems

This tutorial by shows us how to add a swap on FreeBSD 9.0 and 10.0 or later.

Fig.01: How to create a swap file on FreeBSD version 9.X and Earlier Commands

I need additional swap space to improve my FreeBSD Unix server/desktop performance. How do I add a swap file to FreeBSD system using command line options without creating a new partitions? How do I encrypt swap space on a FreeBSD Unix server for security purpose?

Tutorial details
Difficulty Intermediate (rss)
Root privileges Yes
Requirements FreeBSD
Estimated completion time 10m

A swap is nothing but space or file on a disk that can used as virtual memory. In FreeBSD and Unix-like operating systems, it is common to use a whole partition of a hard disk for swapping. When a FreeBSD based server runs out of memory, the kernel can move sleeping or inactive processes into swap area. A dedicated Swap partition goes a long way to avoid system freeze but if you notice you are running out of RAM or your applications are consuming too much of it then you may want to setup a swapfile. This guide helps you add a swap space on FreeBSD based Unix server.

Check out the full tutorial: http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/create-a-freebsd-swap-file/

Researchers at Core Security Technologies issued an advisory on vulnerabilities affecting FreeBSD

Core Security Technologies, a network security company that specializes in attack intelligence and vulnerability management, has recently discovered several vulnerabilities in FreeBSD.

Researchers at Core Security Technologies issued an advisory today on three vulnerabilities in affecting the FreeBSD operating system.

FreeBSD is a Unix-like operating system used to power servers, desktops and embedded platforms. According to the advisory from Core Security, several vulnerabilities were spotted in the FreeBSD kernel code that implements the vt console driver previously known as Newcons as well as the code the implements Stream Control Transmission Protocol [SCTP] sockets. These issues could enable a local, unprivileged attacker to crash the system, disclose kernel memory containing sensitive information and execute arbitrary code with super user privileges.

The FreeBSD Project issued fixes for the issues that are available to users who upgrade to FreeBSD 10.1-RELENG or one of the following reasons: stable/10, 10.1-STABLE releng/10.1, 10.1-RELEASE-p5 releng/10.0, 10.0-RELEASE-p17 stable/9, 9.3-STABLE releng/9.3, 9.3-RELEASE-p9 stable/8, 8.4-STABLE releng/8.4 and 8.4-RELEASE-p23.

Original announcement: http://www.securityweek.com/freebsd-patches-kernel-security-vulnerabilities

FreeBSD Foundation January 2015 Update

FreeBSD foundation logoThis month’s update from the FreeBSD Foundation includes development updates, conference updates, stories from developers, as well as 2015’s fundraising goal.

 

Dear FreeBSD Community Member,

January is that exciting time of year where everything feels new again. It radiates with opportunities and allows us to embark on plans to make this year the best one yet. Here at the Foundation, we are using that energy to get a running start in a number of areas. Our Project Updates continue to show great progress in key areas such as arm64. We’ve kicked off our 2015 fundraising campaign(our most ambitious to date) and we’re launching a new series of articles. Plus, our conference calendar is quickly filing up and includes more new events.  2015 is shaping up to be an awesome year for the Foundation and FreeBSD Community. We can’t wait to show you what’s in store.  Until then, take a minute and check out all that’s happened since our last update.
Happy New Year!
Deb

Read the full announcement here: https://www.freebsdfoundation.org/press/2015janupdate.pdf

Ice 3.6b: Build Ice, IcePy and IcePHP on FreeBSD

iceUser grembo wrote this short tutorial on how to set up Ice on FreeBSD.

The attached patch allows building Ice 3.6b on FreeBSD.

To install Ice, IcePy and IcePHP do:

Code:
cd /usr/ports
patch -p1 <ice36b-freebsd-port.patch.txt

# install Ice for C++
cd /usr/ports/devel/ice-beta
make install clean

# install Ice for Python
cd /usr/ports/devel/py-ice-beta
make install clean

# install Ice for PHP
cd /usr/ports/devel/php5-ice-beta
make install clean

(includes https://www.zeroc.com/forums/patches…rformance.html).

Original post: https://www.zeroc.com/forums/patches/6380-ice-3-6b-build-ice-icepy-icephp-freebsd.html

PC-BSD 10.1.1-RC2 Now Available

The Moore brothers have made available PC-BSD 10.1.1-RC2. pc-bsd_logo

The PC-BSD team is pleased to announce the availability of RC2 images for the upcoming quarterly 10.1.1 release.
Please test these images out and report any issues found on our bug tracker.

Changes since RC1

* Disabled some diskid / gptid labels from installer
* Updated HandBook with additions for 10.1.1
* Fixes to Lumina desktop default settings
* Disabled the lock functionality in AppCafe
* Fixed an issue with VirtualBox modules not being loaded after install
* Updated some man pages for pbi_* commands
* Fixes to how ISO / memory disks are mounted via Mount Tray
* Fixes to Mount Tray for mounting exFAT partitions with write access
* Fixed an issue with UEFI USB media not loading GRUB correctly
* Removed pc-soundmixer utility, functionality has been merged into tray app

Getting media

10.1.1-RC2 DVD/USB media can be downloaded from here via HTTP or Torrent.

For the full list of changes: http://blog.pcbsd.org/2015/01/pc-bsd-10-1-1-rc2-now-available/

 

The difference between /sbin, /bin, /usr/sbin, and /user/bin

/u/evidentlycat gives a great explanation of the difference between /sbin, /bin, /usr/sbin, and /usr/bin on /r/BSD.

http://b.thumbs.redditmedia.com/ogsjP2Dly5R9Y796Qg92fW4pI9kRJY-DIiBAISX4ebk.png

I use the terms “dynamically linked” and “statically linked”. A statically linked executable is independent: it does not load a separate C library, instead, the executable itself contains copies of code it uses from the C library, and interfaces with the kernel entirely by itself through syscalls. A dynamically linked executable loads an external library from a file and calls functions in it.

bin is for binaries which are useful for users without elevated privileges. /bin contains statically-linked binaries which are “fundamental to both single and multi-user environments” according to hier(7). They may be used in the tiny installer ramdisk. Most things in /usr/bin are dynamically linked and all of them are inaccessible in the installer.

sbin is for superuser binaries and daemons, i.e. things not useful to users without elevated privileges. Everything in /sbin is statically linked and accessible in the installer. Most things in /usr/sbin are dynamically linked and all of them are inaccessible in the installer….

Original post from /u/evidentlycat: http://www.reddit.com/r/BSD/comments/2szofc/eli5_why_is_separating_binaries_into_bin_sbin/cnudxzs

Official documentation on filesystem layout: https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?hier%287%29

pfSense 2.2-RELEASE Now Available

The developers of pfSense have released the long awaited 2.2!

pfsense-logo-150x150I’m happy to announce the release of pfSense® software version 2.2! This release brings improvements in performance and hardware support from the FreeBSD 10.1 base, as well as enhancements we’ve added such as AES-GCM with AES-NI acceleration, among a number of other new features and bug fixes. Jim Thompson posted an overview of the significant changes previously.

In the process of reaching release, we’ve closed out 392 total tickets (this number includes 55 features or tasks), fixed 135 bugs affecting 2.1.5 and prior versions, fixed another 202 bugs introduced in 2.2 by advancing the base OS version from FreeBSD 8.3 to 10.1, changing IPsec keying daemons from racoon to strongSwan, upgrading the PHP backend to version 5.5 and switching it from FastCGI to PHP-FPM, and adding the Unbound DNS Resolver, and many smaller changes.

Downloads for New Installs

Downloads to Upgrade Existing Systems – note it’s usually easier to just use the auto-update functionality, in which case you don’t need to download anything from here. Check the Firmware Updates page for details.

Official announcement: https://blog.pfsense.org/?p=1546

FreeBSD last quarter status report 2014

freebsd-logo-largeThe long awaited FreeBSD final quarter status report of 2014 is here. Numerous accomplishments have been made, head on over to the link below to see the year in review.

This report covers FreeBSD-related projects between October and December 2014. This is the last of four reports planned for 2014.

The fourth quarter of 2014 included a number of significant improvements to the FreeBSD system. In particular, compatibility with other systems was enhanced. This included significant improvements to the Linux compatibility layer, used to run Linux binaries on FreeBSD, and the port of WINE, used to run Windows applications. Hypervisor support improved, with FreeBSD gaining the ability to run as domain 0 on Xen’s new high-performance PVH mode, bhyve gaining AMD support, and new tools for creating FreeBSD VM images arriving.

This quarter was also an active time for the toolchain, with numerous improvements to the compiler, debugger, and other components, including initial support for C++14, which should be complete by FreeBSD 10.2.

Thanks to all the reporters for the excellent work!

Full status report: https://www.freebsd.org/news/status/report-2014-10-2014-12.html